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翻译者:阿智GZ  谢谢他了!
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8 l# B8 w; C2 z+ [  y' g漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting; ]! S! o! q" R. U' f( R- v
! P. t8 v9 z& n. H/ T. ?引言chinaraft.com4 J& d( i8 ?; w3 @. j, K0 j* `4 i, O

3 C4 B5 w8 |- X- E2 F3 l) }2 B  Z$ n中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingThis code has been prepared using the best available information and has been reviewed by a broad cross-section of whitewater experts. The code, however, is only a collection of guidelines; attempts to minimize risks should be flexible, not constrained by a rigid set of rules. Varying conditions and group goals may combine with unpredictable circumstances to require alternate procedures. This code is not intended to serve as a standard of care for commercial outfitters or guides.
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此法则是用最有用的信息写成,并由众多不同地方的白水专家复核。但是,此法则仅仅作为参考的指引,要灵活变通去活用它去将风险降到最低,而不要拘泥于死的法则。变化的条件和团体的目标,结合不可预知的环境因素,需要备用的程序。此法则不同于商业团体标准照顾的服务。chinaraft.com2 Z8 C: d3 e- E- x/ E4 F
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I. Personal Preparedness and Responsibility
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' o+ X# |# o0 E3 r1.Be a competent swimmer, with the ability to handle yourself underwater.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft! o$ k5 j6 x# a0 `& ]* ^4 ]8 z
: `% C. l, |5 M3 D; g% h# O9 }, c有在水中控制自己的能力。
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0 }7 |* s: C% q4 L6 E6 ?' R: e中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting2.Wear a life jacket. a snugly-fitting vest-type life preserver offers back and shoulder protection as well as the flotation needed to swim safely in whitewater.
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9 J/ G( g) ^- Q( t, [中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting漂流在白水中需要游泳时,一件贴身合适的背心式救生工具可以给你的背部及肩部提供很好的保护,以及令你安全。
! p! A) w0 E8 g2 C& w  b$ @3 w漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting% l) t$ Z4 x5 J2 q8 L
3.Wear a solid, correctly-fitted helmet when upsets are likely. This is essential in kayaks or covered canoes, and recommended for open canoeists using thigh straps and rafters running steep drops
+ `3 Z: m; s: n! n* }5 M中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting当有可能翻艇时,头上正确佩戴着一个坚固合适的头盔。chinaraft.com/ a1 g8 |+ a  g- o! j4 W. ?5 L- M
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4 ^! M% p: e* r, K; W- ?( echinaraft.com4.Do not boat out of control.Your skills should be sufficient to stop or reach shore before reaching danger. Do not enter a rapid unless you are reasonably sure that you can run it safely or swim it without injury.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting* p4 F& k! Y. w
不能在能力控制范围之外的地方划艇。中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting' A. R" e5 F7 a
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* I) c3 E, P5 U# ^中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting5.Whitewater rivers contain many hazards which are not always easily recognized. The following are the most frequent killers.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft. m, M! z, ~) n, ~; F
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: u8 g4 X) s8 w4 e- u7 b# C* C- a漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇1)High Water. The river’s speed and power increase tremendously as the flow increases, raising the difficulty of most rapids. Rescue becomes progressively harder as the water rises, adding to the danger. Floating debris and strainers make even an easy rapid quite hazardous. It is often misleading to judge the river level at the put in, Since a small rise in a wide, shallow place will be multiplied many times where the river narrows. Use reliable gauge information whenever possible, and be aware that sun on snowpack, hard rain, and upstream dam releases may greatly increase the flow.漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇$ u. S6 X4 s: Q9 R# Q* T
# D& Q! ~: t% ^, \3 Ychinaraft.com随着水流的增加,河流的速度和力量将会得到巨大的增强。大部份急流的难度会增加。救援将会随着水位的上涨而变得越来越困难,甚至变得危险。漂浮的碎片或者物体令到即使是很简单的急流也变得非常险要。进入时通常都很难判断水的级别,因为在宽阔而浅的地方,少少的水涨,都会使河流增加许多峡口。在任何时候,利用可靠的计量资讯,并且留意滑雪场的日照,大雨,水坝的放水,这些都会令水量大增。
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2)Cold. Cold drains your strength and robs you of the ability to make sound decisions on matters affecting your survival. Cold-water immersion, because of the initial shock and the rapid heat loss which follows, is especially dangerous. Dress appropriately for bad weather or sudden immersion in the water. When the water temperature is less than 50 degrees F., a wetsuit or drysuit is essential for protection if you swim. Next best is wool or pile clothing under a waterproof shell. In this case, you should also carry waterproof matches and a change of clothing in a waterproof bag. If, after prolonged exposure, a person experiences uncontrollable shaking, loss of coordination, or difficulty speaking, he or she is hypothermic, and needs your assistance.
$ P9 u8 K3 O: M7 q9 n5 I: F漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇寒冷。中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft! V2 t7 w( a5 y; ^- h
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3)Strainers. Brush, fallen trees, bridge pilings, undercut rocks or anything else which allows river current to sweep through can pin boats and boaters against the obstacle. Water pressure on anything trapped this way can be overwhelming. rescue is often extremely difficult. Pinning may occur in fast current, with little or not whitewater to warn of the danger.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting7 W/ Q7 l2 w, J* n
6 o/ c$ G5 N# ^: S/ b/ v. M) @& K* _# ^chinaraft.com灌木丛,倒下的树,桥桩,岩石,或者任何东西令到席卷而来的河流将船和人“钉”(看原文意思不是真钉,更像按)在障碍物上。水压对钉在其中的任何东西都是压倒性无法抗拒的。求援通常都极端困难。“钉”发生在急流中,伴随着危险警告的是小量的白水。6 C/ D- v, c4 ]

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4)Dams, weirs, ledges, reversals, holes, and hydraulics. When water drops over a obstacle, it curls back on itself, forming a strong upstream current which may be capable of holding a boat or swimmer. Some holes make for excellent sport. Others are proven killers. Paddlers who cannot recognize the difference should avoid all but the smallest holes. Hydraulics around man-made dams must be treated with utmost respect regardless of their height or the level of the river. Despite their seemingly benign appearance, they can create an almost escape-proof trap. The swimmer’s only exit from the “drowning machine” is to dive below the surface when the downstream current is flowing beneath the reversal.5 N0 j$ ]' H0 ]$ v0 F. m
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4 |  n: ]2 U# ^; k1 W# w% @9 S6.Broaching. when a boat is pushed sideways against a rock by strong current, it may collapse and wrap. this is especially dangerous to kayak and decked canoe paddlers; these boats will collapse and the combination of indestructible hulls and tight outfitting may create a deadly trap. even without entrapment, $ ]4 V3 l8 `9 @/ d& _+ h( }
releasing pinned boats can be extremely time-consuming and dangerous. to avoid pinning, throw your weight downstream towards the rock. this allows the current to slide harmlessly underneath the hull. 漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇! q' `# w9 ^" l) h# f$ W/ [  y
像被串在叉上一样! Y# J; W5 @# V) {1 T5 J
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/ L$ ?/ I0 v/ K5 K1 v/ f( \7.Boating alone is discouraged. The minimum party is three people or two craft.
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8.Have a frank knowledge of your boating ability, and don’t attempt rivers or rapids which lie beyond that ability.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting; @  U9 D: K4 `3 k3 p
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4 o6 g2 ~2 `+ T漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇
2 X4 c0 J; C  x中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting9.Be in Good physical and mental condition, consistent with the difficulties which may be expected. Make adjustments for loss of skills due to age, health, fitness. Any health limitations must be explained to your fellow paddlers prior to starting the trip.
( K0 K7 p" m1 m" b7 o  nchinaraft.com身体和精神都处在良好的状态,对将要发生的困难要有所估计。
* d, v) O+ H" s% B对年龄,健康,适应等因素对能力的下降有所估计及调整。任何健康问题都要在开始旅程之前对同伴说明。
8 F5 a% x1 @& W+ v3 ^! R: o漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇
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0 k6 ?' b/ h6 G中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting10.Be practiced in self-rescue, including escape from an overturned craft. The eskimo roll is strongly recommended for decked boaters who run rapids Class IV or greater, or who paddle in cold environmental conditions.漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇- R. `! s/ e! ^. o
自救熟练。, ?& `; f3 `" m7 t
包括翻滚技术。过四级或者更高级的急流,或者在冰冻的环境中,强烈建议会eskimo rool(花式艇的翻滚)。
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0 \+ K, c5 g* u$ y中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting11.Be trained in rescue skills, CPR, and first aid with special emphasis on the recognizing and treating hypothermia. It may save your friend’s life.3 v# S9 ~, B; l# Q4 L0 B  V$ Y& j
接受救援技巧,CPR,和急救的培训。/ n6 J7 z- o: V4 k  j* W
特别强调的是对失温的处理。它会救回你朋友的生命。chinaraft.com* P% @5 x+ R4 _  G0 v/ T1 m

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2 S% i% V" h7 ^- s" z中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting12.Carry equipment needed for unexpected emergencies, including foot wear which will protect your feet when walking out, a throw rope, knife, whistle, and waterproof matches. If you wear eyeglasses, tie them on and carry a spare pair on long trips. Bring cloth repair tape on short runs, and a full repair kit on isolated rivers. Do not wear bulky jackets, ponchos, heavy boots, or anything else which could reduce your ability to survive a swim.. }6 i) S' q- ^( h; J" p
带应付意外的紧急事件的装备。漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇& y5 Z( Y$ R3 {% r1 p, q" h4 r
包括行出船外用于保护你双脚的鞋子,抛绳,小刀,哨子和防水袋。如果你戴眼镜,用细绳绑紧它们,并且如果长途施行的话带多一副备用的。短程时带衣物的修理带,去与外界隔绝的河流时,要带一整套的修理工具。不要穿着宽松的衣服,雨衣,重靴或者任何在你游泳求生时会降低你能力的东西。漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇/ N5 e. J; T& k; @3 V: l4 w

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0 Y; e0 J9 W4 _4 i3 G- R% j中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting13.Despite the mutually supportive group structure described in this code, individual paddlers are ultimately responsible for their own safety, and must assume sole responsibility for the following decisions:chinaraft.com+ f- l! _; w$ {3 N

- e8 y( A% z3 W- Z  u' G中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingI.The decision to participate on any trip. This includes an evaluation of the expected difficulty of the rapids under the conditions existing at the time of the put-in.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting/ U5 B/ Z1 y% d9 L, T7 K/ ~/ X
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II.The selection of appropriate equipment, including a boat design suited to their skills and the appropriate rescue and survival gear.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft; X; `$ o1 t% Q! I! Z( A

1 }1 A- r. t" e0 d1 k7 h$ J: IIII.The decision to scout any rapid, and to run or portage according to their best judgment. Other members of the group may offer advice, but paddlers should
2 c& `5 I9 u" u& _/ fresist pressure from anyone to paddle beyond their skills. It is also their responsibility to decide whether to pass up any walk-out or take-out opportunity.
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IV.All trip participants should consistently evaluate their own and their group’s safety, voicing their concerns when appropriate and following what they believe to be the best course of action. Paddlers are encouraged to speak with anyone whose actions on the water are dangerous, whether they are a part of your group or not.chinaraft.com. v- [! D& h0 ~5 r

& R; M6 C- z9 I# K& w+ W  I一个互助的团体,组队时应有以下描述:浆手最终对自己的安全负责,并对以下的情况作唯一的决定:
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I.参与到旅程中。包括在当时的情况下对急流难度的评估。2 ~& Z) D& d5 K0 y
+ i2 W. I" H0 }% d中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingIII.决定人去侦察急流,通过他们最好的判断是划还是搬船。其他队员可以提供建议,但桨手应该抵受住压力,拒绝划超越他们能力的急流。这也是他们的责任,决定是走出去还是划出去。中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting6 ~" r+ b  h. q9 _! L


二.Boat and Equipment Preparedness漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇1 o( ^) _/ ~* U% r: D$ @! z) v7 Q- a
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7 T6 R# |) H3 ?2 q- \漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇1.Test new and different equipment under familiar conditions before relying on it for difficult runs. This is especially true when adopting a new boat design or outfitting system. Low-volume craft may present additional hazards to inexperienced or poorly conditioned paddlers.
  v- s& A0 e8 S: k9 O# x' [- W+ b中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft测试新和不同的装备.在艰难环境下依仗装备之前要熟悉它们,尤其是采用新设计的船和装备的时候。对于新手或者身体状况不好的桨手来说,小容积的船可能带来额外的危险。
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2 E0 P6 ^  D; P2.Be sure your boat and gear are in good repair before starting a trip. The more isolated and difficult the run, the more rigorous this inspection should be.
# v9 N6 r. s# C% |1 a9 X, b  N中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting确保你的船和传动装置在出行前有好的保养。去越偏远越困难的地方,所作的检查就应该越严格。chinaraft.com; u% b: Q  a2 }7 M- x; s
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3.Install flotation bags in non-inflatable craft, securely fixed in each end, designed to displace as much water as possible. Inflatable boats should have multiple air chambers and be test-inflated before launching.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting3 d$ _  ?" P( X3 K% w( x
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$ D- i: H2 d: |- q( v' z中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting4.Have strong, properly sized paddles or oars for controlling your craft. Carry sufficient spares for the length and difficulty of the trip.
1 T' `5 H! J8 t3 |5 ?9 G: X6 w% n漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇有结实合适尺寸的桨或者橹来控制你的船。带足够的备件应付远行或者艰难的旅程。中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting3 J) c0 t; I( u% m8 N! ?6 Q- j- R+ i$ O

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5.Outfit your boat safely. The ability to exit your boat quickly is an essential component of safety in rapids. It is your responsibility to see that thereis absolutely nothing to cause entrapment when coming free of an upset craft. This includes:chinaraft.com% C" O$ n- M8 |& u0 x
I.Spray covers which won’t release reliably or which release prematurely.
+ A) r2 U/ K- U* B中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftII.Boat outfitting too tight to allow a fast exit, especially in low volume kayaks or decked canoes. This includes low-hung thwarts in canoes lacking adequate clearance for your feet and kayak footbraces which fail or allow your feet to become wedged under them.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting8 {# s# N- \6 s3 a- T
III.Inadequately supported decks which collapse on a paddler’s legs when a decked boat is pinned by water pressure. Inadequate clearance with the deck because of your size or build.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting3 |; h' _5 ^, }
IV.Loose ropes which cause entanglement. Beware of any length of loose line attached to a whitewater boat. All items must be tied tightly and excess line eliminated; painters, throw lines, and safety rope systems must be completely and effectively stored. Do not knot the end of a rope, as it can get caught in cracks between rocks.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft- s* K0 q4 B( D: M; r9 i
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5.令你的船安全。在急流中,迅速离开船的能力是必需的安全要素。检查并且令到绝对没有在翻船时阻拌缠绕你离开的东西,是你的职责。这些东西包括:漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇8 c' m, @6 u  E) V, v$ }/ \2 ^- P

% r" G4 U1 m" E" _% R4 C) {中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingI. 防浪裙不能及时打开或者过早打开。
# f! S6 Z; C, @. E% q5 ~4 F中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇; ?% j0 |# p- b( t0 b( K& o% b
II.船的装备太紧影响快速离开。尤其是在小体积的独木舟或者装甲板的船。包括船中安装的低挂的横坐板没有足够空间给你的脚,独木舟的支脚也会弄伤你的脚。5 F5 Q( L2 l( |0 _( m
中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting- `0 \: e. ?2 q( J% h# q( Z
III. 当船被水压钉住,不适当地支撑着的覆盖物倒下压住你的腿。因你的体格或者身材而不能清除覆盖物。
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IV. 松散的绳造成的纠缠。小心附在白水船上的松散的绳子的任何长度。所有东西必需紧绑并且剩余的绳子要去掉;"钉“,抛绳,安全绳必需完整并被有效保存。不要在绳子的末端打结,因为它会绊在石缝之间。
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5 j1 ]4 S/ C2 T& A; s' m) h中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting
8 m8 U5 w; K4 f4 W7 T中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting6.Provide ropes which permit you to hold on to your craft so that it may be rescued. The following methods are recommended:中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting& r2 l: Q1 d. A$ S' b
I.Kayaks and covered canoes should have grab loops of 1/4” + rope or equivalent webbing sized to admit a normal-sized hand. Stern painters are permissible if properly secured.
! [  }; B. O: S" w8 G3 J% H: ]中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftII.Open canoes should have securely anchored bow and stern painters consisting of 8 - 10 feet of 1/4” + line. These must be secured in such a way that they are readily accessible, but cannot come loose accidentally. Grab loops are acceptable, but are more difficult to reach after an upset.
' t. ^1 f9 m, y1 S! E5 S( |& J中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingIII.Rafts and dories may have taut perimeter lines threaded through the loops provided. Footholds should be designed so that a paddler’s feet cannot be forced through them, causing entrapment. Flip lines should be carefully and reliably stowed.chinaraft.com  P8 L3 H/ F" H5 V+ o% u
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I.独木舟和封闭式的船应该有1/4'+粗的绳或者其他设备造成的圆环或者可抓手的地方,可容下普通尺寸的手。如果牢固话,stern painters(尾舵?)是充许的。
- H( }8 W& S6 h' H- W& E中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingII.开放式的船必需有8-10英尺长,1/4'粗的绳构成的安全的anchored bow(船头的锚?) 和stern painters(尾舵?)。这些绳必需牢固并且容量被抓住,但不能由于意外而松开。圆环是合适的,但翻船后不容易抓住。' V; h' q3 O( O7 X; N
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7.Know your craft’s carrying capacity, and how added loads affect boat handling in whitewater. Most rafts have a minimum crew size which can be added to on day trips or in easy rapids. Carrying more than two paddlers in an open canoe when running rapids is not recommended.
& v! V! {7 y1 E( o$ A知道你船只的运输能力,并且如何操控在白水中超载的船只。在一天的活动或者简单的急流中,大部分的船只都有一个增加人的限量。不推荐开放式船只在急流中的活动承载两人以上。
/ N" k6 o$ B, S! w$ `/ R漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇
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) \1 [! N- L( F& Q2 i$ h4 k) z漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇8.Car-top racks must be strong and attach positively to the vehicle. Lash your boat to each crossbar, then tie the ends of the boats directly to the bumpers for added security. This arrangement should survive all but the most violent vehicle accident.
: U. F5 U% k) Tchinaraft.com车顶架必需正确并牢固地稳定在车上。每一次经过缓冲坡都捆扎好你的船,然后将船直接系紧在缓冲器上以增加安全。这些安排将会在严重的交通事故后令所有人存活。


III. Group Preparedness and Responsibility中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft' R* I- N3 }7 p- X5 Q# M
三.团队准备和责任漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇8 A1 j; K1 f% J
中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting$ K+ ^" U+ [: Q4 @8 U1 @

2 U( Y# E) q: D8 A) {" Y1 u9 @! qchinaraft.com中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting- x% j6 R0 p; K0 J2 L; P: |
1.Organization. A river trip should be regarded as a common adventure by all participants, except on uctional or commercially guided trips as defined below. Participants share the responsibility for the conduct of the trip, and each participant is individually responsible for judging his or her own capabilities and for his or her own safety as the trip progresses. Participants are encouraged (but are not obligated) to offer advice and guidance for the independent consideration and judgment of others.chinaraft.com) c9 @' O0 y" p1 s
! h1 j6 n  t  ?3 |中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting一个河流的旅行可视为一次由所有参与者组成的普通的探险.除了类似定义之下的教育性或者商业指引的旅行。参与都共同承担旅程中的行为的责任.并且每一个参与者各自负责判断自己的能力及在旅途中的安全。对领队考虑或者判断的事情,参与者被鼓励(但并不强制)提出建议和辅导。chinaraft.com. `  y2 T, c  Q+ e5 m: n" \" _9 f
漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇. w* T; Q& w, ]; L% O% R, ?
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2.River Conditions. The group should have a reasonable knowledge of the difficulty of the run. Participants should evaluate this information and adjust their plans accordingly. If the run is exploratory or no one is familiar with the river, maps and guidebooks, if available, should be examined. The group should secure accurate flow information; the more difficult the run, the more important this will be. Be aware of possible changes in river level and how this will affect the difficulty of the run. If the trip involves tidal stretches, secure appropriate information on tides.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft" b6 n) R! v2 V/ P* Q9 o
2.河流形势.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft7 E. |" E# v3 v# k8 m! K! W
团队应该具备通过困难河段的合理的知识。参与者应该评估河流的信息并因此而调整计划。如果行程是探险的,或者无人熟悉该河流,地图或者指南的话,如果可能,应该验证.团队应该取得准确的水流情况;行程越困难,这些情报就越重要。注意河流等级可能出现的变化,和它将会对行程造成怎么样的影响。如果行程中出现涨潮,取得浪潮的正确信息。chinaraft.com) i( w+ ^+ f4 Y2 D7 b

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3.Group equipment should be suited to the difficulty of the river. The group should always have a throw-line available, and one line per boat is recommended on difficult runs. The list may include: carabiners, prussic loops, first aid kit, flashlight, folding saw, fire starter, guidebooks, maps, food, extra clothing, and any other rescue or survival items suggested by conditions. Each item is not required on every run, and this list is not meant to be a substitute for good judgment.
/ R+ |; Y% c" V中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft3.团队的装备必需适合困难的河流。团队必需总是备有可用的抛绳,在困难的行程中,建议每艇一条绳。装备清单包括: 快挂,prussic结(要了解何谓prussic loop请参考以下网站:http://www.planetfear.com/article_detail.asp?a_id=511),医疗药箱,闪光灯,可折叠的锯,点火装备,指南,地图,食物,额外的衣物。条件许可的话,带上任何其他救援或者生存物资。每一项物品并非每一次旅程上都需要,但并不意味着可以以好的判断来代替它们。chinaraft.com- c8 R! e9 B, E# _; Z/ f0 C: S

' f2 A3 K7 l# W! P$ Cchinaraft.com4.Keep the group compact, but maintain sufficient spacing to avoid collisions. If the group is large, consider dividing into smaller groups or using the “buddy system” as an additional safeguard. Space yourselves closely enough to permit good communication, but not so close as to interfere with one another in rapids.
! K* B* Z3 K! o+ P6 N中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftI.A point paddler sets the pace. When in front, do not get in over your head. Never run drops when you cannot see a clear route to the bottom or, for advanced paddlers, a sure route to the next eddy. When in doubt, stop and scout.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting# }1 q$ R/ Q$ g5 l
II.Keep track of all group members. Each boat keeps the one behind it in sight, stopping if necessary. Know how many people are in your group and take head-counts regularly. No one should paddle ahead or walk out without first informing the group. Paddlers requiring additional support should stay at the center of a group, and not allow themselves to lag behind in the more difficult rapids. If the group is large and contains a wide range of abilities, a “sweep boat” may be designated to bring up the rear.
2 s( g4 l# U, |0 u$ w, T$ v漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇Courtesy. On heavily used rivers, do not cut in front of a boater running a drop. Always look upstream before leaving eddies to run or play. Never enter a III.crowded drop or eddy when no room for you exists. Passing other groups in a rapid may be hazardous; it’s often safer to wait upstream until the group ahead has passed.
* @2 B+ a8 P3 O( n( z+ i  B& h中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft4.保持队伍的紧凑。
$ S0 [8 z! x: E. `  L中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft但保持足够的距离避免碰撞。如果队伍庞大,考虑将它分成几个小团队或者使用“伙伴体系”作为额外的护航舰。将你们保持在能够有良好沟通的距离上,但不紧密到在急流中妨碍其他人的程度。
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% M9 g4 {" R) l. ?中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftI.顶尖的浆手,总会设定正常的速度。在前面的时候,不会超过领航者。当你无法看见跌水底部的清晰路线时,绝不贸然冲下去。对于一个高级的浆手,除此之外,确定到下一个漩涡的路线。如果有怀疑,停下来并视察。
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; I3 e% P! q8 N$ H* y中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftII.跟随所有成员的轨迹。每只船都跟随视线内的船的后面,如有必要就停下来。知道你的队伍共有多少人并且令到每单位都有规则地行进。不应该有人在事先没有通知队伍的情况下划到前头或者划开。需要照顾的浆手应该留在队伍的中部,不充许他们在困难的急流中落在后面。如果队伍庞大而且队内有有能力的人的话,一只”扫视船”应该被指定在队伍的后面收尾。
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5.Float Plan. If the trip is into a wilderness area or for an extended period, plans should be filed with a nsible person who will contact the authorities if you are overdue. It may be wise to establish checkpoints along the way where civilization could be contacted if necessary. Knowing the location of possible help and planning escape routes can speed rescue.
- I* u- N) N# p' W中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting5.公开计划。
( a' \4 y) i1 ?+ E6 ]- f  q如果旅行进入荒野,或者历时较长,应该将计划行程给负责任的人归档,如果你们迟到,此人会联络当局。必要的话,沿途在有文明的地方设立一些检查点,会是明智的做法。知道当地可得到的帮助和计划逃生的路线将会提高救援速度。
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6.Drugs. The use of alcohol or mind-altering drugs before or during river trips is not recommended. It dulls reflexes, reduces decision-making ability, and may interfere with important survival reflexes.中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft7 E- A0 V# ?+ L' I8 ]  c
6.毒品。中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting( M: W6 h7 B) D# y
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% ^" q6 `8 W" h2 a" n8 fchinaraft.com7.Instructional or commercially guided trips. In contrast to the common adventure trip format, in these trip formats, a boating instructor or commercial guide assumes some of the responsibilities normally exercised by the group as a whole, as appropriate under the circumstances. These formats recognize that instructional or commercially guided trips may involve participants who lack significant experience in whitewater. However, as a participant acquires experience in whitewater, he or she takes on increasing responsibility for his or her own safety, in accordance with what he or she knows or should know as a result of that increased experience. Also, as in all trip formats, every participant must realize and assume the risks associated with the serious hazards of whitewater rivers.
1 \5 Q1 R1 z; Y/ f  s中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting7.教育性或者商业性引导的旅行。
! e( K! o3 @, b- p9 P( r" s* U/ a中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting对比普通的探险旅行模式,在这些旅行模式中,一个划艇教官或者商业领队会承担一些责任,令队伍在那些环境下得以妥善及完整地练习。这些教育性或者商业性引导的旅行的模式,可能会带有在白水中缺少重要经验的参与者。然而,若一个参与者在白水中取得经验,他或者她要对自己的安全承担起更多的责任。他或者她知道或者应该知道的责任的多少与增加经验的多少是成正比的。同时,所有模式都好,在白水河流中,每一个参与者都要了解和共同承担重大危险的风险。chinaraft.com) c1 K* h" I/ ]/ B

. ~6 e( B2 O2 G( {2 e7 `% X漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇
. a+ P$ J8 M9 ~( K$ U中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting8.It is advisable for instructors and commercial guides or their employers to acquire trip or personal liability insurance:
% n; r) q0 J1 R3 f5 ~中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftI.An “instructional trip” is characterized by a clear teacher/pupil relationship, where the primary purpose of the trip is to teach boating skills, and which is conducted for a fee.+ G( Q; Y& c" l4 P; F) A2 V& [' V( c
II.A “commercially guided trip” is characterized by a licensed, professional guide conducting trips for a fee.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting" F4 F4 G2 Y9 t4 A: y  ^9 k' S
) s6 K! H5 Y5 s7 f0 j9 L# ~& Y漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇I.“教育性的旅行”理解为明确的教师/学生关系,旅程主要的目的是教授划艇技巧,应该收费。漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇! h# r3 T$ W% g! P4 D# e/ I+ J  ^


IV.Universal River Signals
6 Y2 y$ E- r: lchinaraft.com四.通用的河流信号
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. I" A: J& n! N; C中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingThese signals may be substituted with an alternate set of signals agreed upon by the group.
  \8 P1 a) k9 X漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇这些信号可以被团队事先交流定出的一套信号取替。
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, I3 O/ N7 S3 Bchinaraft.comStop: Potential Hazard Ahead. Wait for “all clear” signal before proceeding, or scout ahead. form a horizontal bar with your outstretched arms. Those seeing the signal should pass it back to others in the party. -
2 f/ U5 X; a' ^2 o: ~8 s停止:前方有潜在的危险。行动或者向前侦察前等待“解除警报的信号”。像吊单杠状,伸直手臂将浆高举。看到信号的人应该将之传递给其他随队人员。


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Help/Emergency: Assist the signaler as quickly as possible. Give three long blasts on a police whistle while waving a paddle, helmet or life vest over your head. If a whistle is not available, use the visual signal alone. A whistle is best carried on a lanyard attached to your life vest.
/ C$ P" D( k3 e! u求救/紧急情况:救援求救人要尽可能迅速。吹三声长且响的警报哨声的同时,在头顶上挥动短浆,头盔或者救生衣。如果无口哨的话,只使用可视信号。口哨最好带上并绑在救生衣上。


All Clear 中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft5 W4 H% B3 J5 A6 O3 u5 r+ |3 U1 }

# |* s0 o$ o0 v- A2 ^1 J中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingAll Clear: Come ahead (in the absence of other directions proceed down the center). Form a vertical bar with your paddle or one arm held high above your head. Paddle blade should be turned flat for maximum visibility. To signal direction or a preferred course through a rapid around obstruction, lower the previously vertical “all clear” by 45 degrees toward the side of the river with the preferred route. Never point toward the obstacle you wish to avoid.
) [3 U7 U; b7 G/ q$ A! Z9 b  r9 ?# R中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting解除警报:向前(无固定的方向,从中心点向下进行下去),将浆或者一只手臂举高过头形成竖线。浆板应调整为最大可见度。信号的方向指明最佳通过周围有障碍物急流的通道。从先前的“解除警报”的垂直线动作向下做成45度角指向最佳通行路线。不指向你希望避开的障碍物的方向。


I’m okay
- l/ i9 y0 Q$ tchinaraft.com
7 F8 V, _2 L/ W' A0 I中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingI’m okay: I’m okay and not hurt. While holding the elbow outward toward the side, repeatedly pat the top of your head. 中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting! g& L1 x8 G% R9 G


The six difficulty classes:
- Q$ e& i- N9 I8 b3 c, h, Ichinaraft.com六种难度级别:
+ Z9 l  a8 f) J' a+ S: G中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting
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Class I Rapids
$ y# E5 x, O1 gList of Class I thru III Rated Rapids 漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇( c0 A' M. d% Y9 j

0 c& X7 o* {6 G7 i# v漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇Fast moving water with riffles and small waves. Few obstructions, all obvious and easily missed with little training. Risk to swimmers is slight; self-rescue is easy.
1 B! s# a2 G2 k! I0 S中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting
# W7 h% D. N3 ?1 D3 X中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting一级急流中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting) e# `3 ^+ E# D& @5 y
1 j7 L( o* s; }$ Ghttp://www.americanwhitewater.or ... ass5benchmarkrapids
  W: M2 S" s2 r' f$ t" Tchinaraft.com
/ {9 P) s) v8 v" n: \7 t- |! T7 L* P漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇有浅滩和小浪的快速流动的水。很少障碍物,通过简单的训练就可以避开或者容易避开它们。对游泳者的危险是微不足道的;容易自救。
. I; ?3 L4 K, J+ s中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting6 d  v5 q, L% E4 x/ ?: r* z+ H
Class II Rapids: Novice
; h0 A$ ^3 H9 E) w, o) ?$ ~( Q8 v6 v中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftList of Class I thru III Rated Rapids 中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft3 l. U- K2 j+ l3 I$ z+ ~( l
Straightforward rapids with wide, clear channels which are evident without scouting. Occasional maneuvering may be required, but rocks and medium-sized waves are easily missed by trained paddlers. Swimmers are seldom injured and group assistance, while helpful, is seldom needed. Rapids that are at the upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class II+”.中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting: T& N! A1 i: ]) M9 I; s6 H

4 i3 f+ R7 P$ Z& @+ Rchinaraft.com二级急流:新手中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft8 A& l& I) F1 V" O+ I; h
(一到三级的急流列表)chinaraft.com* A8 U9 w8 L: j7 c  C+ R% j

$ u5 p6 n  M7 B中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting笔直而宽阔的急流,明显清晰的通道,无需派人在岸上作保护。偶而需要用到技巧,但受训过的浆手可以轻易避开石头和中等尺寸的浪。游泳者很少会受伤并且团队有的救援几乎不需要。难度等级在此之上的急流标为“二级+”。
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4 e" A" u; N, H" |$ N8 {" _$ U. G中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingClass III: Intermediate
, D: c3 I# o0 _! f% N中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaftList of Class III Rated Rapids
& Y0 _# T" }- f; d& j0 `/ C中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingRapids with moderate, irregular waves which may be difficult to avoid and which can swamp an open canoe. Complex maneuvers in fast current and good boat control in tight passages or around ledges are often required; large waves or strainers may be present but are easily avoided. Strong eddies and powerful current effects can be found, particularly on large-volume rivers. scouting is advisable for inexperienced parties. Injuries while swimming are rare; self-rescue is usually easy but group assistance may be required to avoid long swims. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class III-” or “Class III+” respectively.漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇" z; C& e, U1 Y" i' L

8 }2 o" Y% d% d  h( V' Y中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting三级:中间的中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting. X' X! f% B6 B. A3 C( v

. K' |4 O( e0 Q% w. c中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting三级急流列表中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft3 T) x1 r9 w' t, c- K" Y- W" n

2 r: N  f! z- R有中等,不规则的浪的急流,浪可能难以避开并且会淹过开放式的艇。需要有良好的控船能力和复杂的技巧快速通过很窄的通道或者满布暗礁的地方;大浪或者“钉”可能会出现,但可以轻易避开。强大的漩涡和强劲的水流影响会被发现,尤其在大容职的河流。对不熟练的一方(应该包括人和危险的地方)要在岸上设保护。游泳时受伤不多见;自救通常都容易,但团队的救援可能需要,以避免长时间的漂浮。分别地,难度有所降低或者增强的急流标记为“三级-”和“三级+”。
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Class IV: Advanced
8 y) F$ r0 ?/ p% O% B. G中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingList of Class IV Rated Rapids
+ e/ y' y3 [% g2 B6 ~0 }' o- uIntense, powerful but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. Depending on the character of the river, it may feature large, unavoidable waves and holes or constricted passages demanding fast maneuvers under pressure. A fast, reliable eddy turn may be needed to initiate maneuvers, scout rapids, or rest. Rapids may require “must” moves above dangerous hazards. Scouting may be necessary the first time down. Risk of injury to swimmers is moderate to high, and water conditions may make self-rescue difficult. Group assistance for rescue is often essential but requires practiced skills. A strong eskimo roll is highly recommended. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class IV-” or “Class IV+” respectively.
: O8 _5 f9 X5 C% ?; r中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting四级:高级的
. `. ^5 a4 Q, v5 j- O& G' x漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇四级急流列表漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇0 T4 ]6 K! P( B6 F) l$ A
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激烈,强劲但可预测的急流,在狂暴的水中需要密闭的船来操控。根据河流的特性,它会出现巨大的,不可避免的浪和洞,或者很窄的通道需要在压力之下迅速找到应付的对策。一个激烈,确切的回卷漩涡可能需要商量对策,设置保护,或者放弃。急流可能要求必需在危险之上行动。第一个下去之前设置保护可能是必需的。游泳者受伤的风险是中到高,水势可能令到自救困难。团队救援通常是必不可少的,但需要熟练的技巧。建议掌握熟练的爱斯基摩翻滚技巧。分别地,难度有所降低或者增强的急流标记为“四级-”和“四级+”。chinaraft.com- R' o0 p) |- ^# {
中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft; w9 _; J7 I; s: ~
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Class 5: Expert
0 @+ W5 c  l! Z( d; v4 t2 U& Y' \& m中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingList of Class 5 Rated Rapids
# O% Z6 a2 \: K) q; iExtremely long, obstructed, or very violent rapids which expose a paddler to added risk. Drops may contain** large, unavoidable waves and holes or steep, congested chutes with complex, demanding routes. Rapids may continue for long distances between pools, demanding a high level of fitness. What eddies exist may be small, turbulent, or difficult to reach. At the high end of the scale, several of these factors may be combined. Scouting is recommended but may be difficult. Swims are dangerous, and rescue is often difficult even for experts. A very reliable eskimo roll, proper equipment, extensive experience, and practiced rescue skills are essential. Because of the large range of difficulty that exists beyond Class IV, Class 5 is an open-ended, multiple-level scale designated by class 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, etc... each of these levels is an order of magnitude more difficult than the last. Example: increasing difficulty from Class 5.0 to Class 5.1 is a similar order of magnitude as increasing from Class IV to Class 5.0.
) J& w, H3 g& X  R$ E" H$ Q8 P中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting) G) Z/ U8 A+ ~4 F
- ~) `; x& [2 Y中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft五级急流列表中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting" t7 n0 v7 D9 N/ z
中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting. `+ H; D) P, a/ \
极端的长,偏远,或者非常剧烈的急流,会将浆手暴露在额外的危险里。 跌水可能包含巨大的,不可避免的浪和洞,或者险峻,狭窄的瀑布,伴随着复杂吃力的线路。两个水潭(或者实际上的浅滩)之间由长距离的急流连着,要求高水平的适应。漩涡的存在可能很小,很狂暴,或者很难通过。这一等级的最高难度,是许多这些因素混合在一起。建议在岸上设保护但可能很困难。游泳是危险的,即使是专家,救援也通常是很困难的。扎实的爱斯基摩翻滚技术,合适的装备,丰富的经验,和熟练的救援技巧是必需要的。因为比四级存在更大的困难,五级是极限的,多重等级的标尺,标为5.0,5.1,5.2等。每一个水平的等级都比以前的更为困难。例如,5.0到5.1的难度与四级到5.0的难度想似。+ {  i5 k( X7 B. c; [

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: V* n% k% y8 V# Q  {中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingClass VI: Extreme and Exploratory Rapids
4 J- V. |+ C& hThese runs have almost never been attempted and often exemplify the extremes of difficulty, unpredictability and danger. The consequences of errors are very severe and rescue may be impossible. For teams of experts only, at favorable water levels, after close personal inspection and taking all precautions. After a Class VI rapids has been run many times, its rating may be changed to an apppropriate Class 5.x rating.chinaraft.com4 P7 g" |& N% f$ A1 c0 A% w* d
漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇7 M2 K7 `) o6 X, _! k
六级:极端和探险级的急流漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇& o! S) A* Q8 A$ [- q9 e3 ?
漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇/ w, u, {$ @& A5 s5 i


: a) a, H1 Y; u7 b8 N9 L+ ^; k- schinaraft.com对比一下加拿大玩家waterwalker翻译的六级水白水的分级。分级尺度大概差不多,但简明许多。
: m; u! ^! z4 ~) l中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft
! d1 V4 }5 m* m, e  ihttp://www.doyouhike.net/forum/aqua/digest/205192,0,0,0.html
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Class I
* k8 K- y. \: \# XMoving Water with a few riffles and small waves. Few or no obstructions 7 p! V8 Y6 Y4 T' ~) g) r0 E
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一级 中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft4 [" r* N- d9 L0 N
$ x: o7 ?# C1 b4 s% f漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇  
: v; q  {4 r$ U% a中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,raftingClass II
& A! `3 d- O. G. }8 \7 echinaraft.comEasy rapids with waves up to one meter high and wide, clear channels that are obvious without scouting. Some manoeuvring is required.
4 U- k5 Z' R$ K3 d1 a2 R漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇  
; R( e" M) q  Z+ Y3 m中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting二级 chinaraft.com* p: |; ?) v3 n/ ~7 `+ p
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Class III 2 @- m) i& r9 I1 ~
Rapids with high, irregular waves often capable of swamping an open canoe. Narrow passages that often require complex manoeuvring. May require scouting from shore.
7 q1 ?* I; }0 y( b漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇  
$ g5 ^1 V" J* v& U( D漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇三级
5 R( Y# B2 Q' @  p漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇急流中有不规则的大浪,通常能够打翻开放式划艇。有一些狭窄的通道,但要求复杂的技巧。可能需要上岸查看。
0 {3 o8 D  E! M+ y中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting  
8 x2 T* N+ P0 H4 n2 L/ g6 \chinaraft.comClass IV
' l* p9 C5 r3 W3 u/ bchinaraft.comLong, difficult rapids with constricting passages that often require precise manoeuvring in very turbulent waters. Scouting from shore is necessary, and conditions make rescue difficult. General not possible for open canoes. Boaters in covered canoes and kayaks should have ability to Eskimo roll. 中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft( N  I! q/ X9 k- v8 Q( ]
5 ~. e" y) P* m! Q) q( G8 @: V) Q中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting四级
8 A) Y8 j8 H8 @0 M漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇急流距离长,难度大,有着非常狭窄的通道,通常需要在翻腾的水流中能做出精确的技巧。必须上岸查看而且救援困难。一般而言不适合开放式划艇。对于盖以挡水罩的划艇和皮艇,艇员应能做爱斯基摩翻滚。
7 L6 _7 o8 e9 T  |% C3 F8 ?  中国漂流探险,china raft,kayak,kayaking,canoe,caneoing,rafting* k( G# ~, B" N9 H" n+ c7 k
Class V
) u- J. X( X0 |8 H漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇Extremely difficult, long and very violent rapids with highly congested routes, which always should be scouted from shore. Rescue conditions are difficult, and there is significant hazard to life in the event of a mishap. Ability to Eskimo roll is essential for boaters in kayaks and decked canoes. Unsuitable for open canoes.
: {; |6 x3 k5 @5 z2 S中国漂流探险网 ChinaRaft  2 O0 h& _, e3 @: {' Y' s4 k
* H# @' K. m% L: g/ B$ X$ i急流距离长,水流湍急,难度极大,有着高度狭窄的通道,上岸查看是不可或缺的。救援困难,发生意外时易危及生命。对于皮艇和有封闭甲板的划艇的艇员而言,爱斯基摩翻滚是基本的要求。不适合开放式划艇。
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Class VI 漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇' @- D! V$ o( ~% L* V4 k
Difficulties for Class V carried to the extreme of navigability. Nearly impossible and very dangerous. For teams of experts only, after a close study has been made and all precautions have been taken. Unsuitable for open canoes.
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六级 漂流,中国漂流,漂流探险,探险漂流,中国漂流探险,漂流装备,独木舟,皮划艇: N8 t1 y: e  R+ L5 z9 j





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